The effectiveness of air pollution control programs for mobile sources in Taiwan during last 10 yr was evaluated. Vehicle kilometer traveled (VKT) and registration numbers of on-road vehicles increased 60-70% during the past decade. Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency developed a comprehensive strategy based on both incentive and command-control approaches to reduce emissions from on-road mobile sources. Several programs were conducted. Enhanced emission standards for new vehicles were effective. The Smoke-check program for motorcycle and diesel engines showed significant abatement potential for air pollutant emissions. The clean fuel programs including phase-out of leaded gasoline and sulfur content reduction in fuel were also effective. The incentive program for high-polluting vehicle retirement and promotion of cleaner vehicles showed the slight abatement of air pollutant emissions. Overall, motorcycle control measures presented significant abatement of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and CO emissions. The emission reductions of CO, NMHC, and NOx could be achieved by implementing gasoline vehicle control measures. Diesel engine measures were effective for particular matter emission abatement. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 14th International Union of Air pollution Prevention and Environmental Protection Associations World Congress 2007 (Brisbane, Queensland 9/9-13/2007).