Three-dimensional (3D) cephalometry is not as simple as just adding a 'third' dimension to a traditional two-dimensional cephalometric analysis. There are more complex issues in 3D analysis. These include how reference frames are created, how size, position, orientation and shape are measured, and how symmetry is assessed. The main purpose of this article is to present the geometric principles of 3D cephalometry. In addition, the Gateno-Xia cephalometric analysis is presented; this is the first 3D cephalometric analysis to observe these principles.
|頁（從 - 到）||1441-1450|
|期刊||International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery|
|出版狀態||Published - 2015|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes