This paper presents a new spatio-temporal motion estimation algorithm and its VLSI architecture for video coding based on algorithm and architecture co-design methodology. The algorithm consists of the new strategies of spatio-temporal motion vector prediction, modified one-at-a-time search scheme, and multiple update paths derived from optimization theory. The hardware specification is for high-definition video coding. We applied the ME algorithm to H.264 reference software. Our algorithm surpasses recently published research and achieves close performance to full search. The VLSI implementation proves the low cost feature of our algorithm. The algorithm and architecture co-design concept is highly emphasized in this paper. We provide some quantitative example to show the necessity of algorithm and architecture co-design.
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