The constant improvement of an enterprise's competitive advantage is essential for its sustainable operation. Simultaneously, the persistent and effective learning methods of organizational members lead to the accumulation of learning results and knowledge, which are important intangible assets, as well as the key to establishing a company's competitive advantage. Many enterprises have utilized various resources (such as building systems and purchasing software) to facilitate employee learning. However, the employees' learning outcomes may not necessarily meet these enterprises' expectations. As advocated in many studies, e-learning is not merely a new trend-it also plays an essential role in the learning and training process that organizational members undergo. However, throughout the learning process, what are the factors that cause different e-learning outcomes? The goal orientation theory in educational psychology has provided a reasonable framework for explaining and describing the differences in employees' post-learning behaviors. This study focused on employees from Taiwanese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and their participation in enterprise resource planning (ERP)-based e-learning. The employees' goal orientations and how they indirectly (with learning satisfaction as a mediator) impact the employees' learning outcomes were examined and deduced. A questionnaire was administered to 405 employees from different SMEs who have had the experience of using an ERP-based e-learning platform. According to the structural equation model analysis results, the employees' master goal orientation and performance-approach orientation (avoidance orientation) will exert an indirect positive (negative) influence on learning outcomes through learning satisfaction as a mediator. Lastly, this study interpreted the empirical results together with their academic and managerial implications, and proposed some recommendations for subsequent research.
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