The developments of molecular marker-based genetic linkage maps are now routine. Physical maps based on contigs of large insert genomic clones have been established in several plant species. However, integration of genetic, physical, and cytological maps is still a challenge for most plant species. Here we present an integrated map of rice (Oryza sativa L.) chromosome 5, developed by fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of 18 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones or PI-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) clones on meiotic pachytene chromosomes. Each BAC/PAC clone was anchored by a restriction fragment length polymorphism marker mapped to the rice genetic linkage map. This molecular cytogenetic map shows the genetic recombination and sequence information of a physical map, correlated to the cytological features of rice chromosome 5. Detailed comparisons of the distances between markers on genetic, cytological, and physical maps, revealed the distributions of recombination events and molecular organization of the chromosomal features of rice chromosome 5 at the pachytene stage. Discordance of distances between the markers was found among the different maps. Our results revealed that neither the recombination events nor the degree of chromatin condensation were evenly distributed along the entire length of chromosome 5. Detailed comparisons of the correlative positions of markers on the genetic, cytological, and physical maps of rice chromosome 5 provide insight into the molecular architecture of rice chromosome 5, in relation to its cytological features and recombination events on the genetic map. The prospective applications of such an integrated cytogenetic map are discussed.
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