With the significant global obesity epidemic and emerging strong scientific evidence that connected gut microbiota to obesity, intervening obesity by targeting gut microbiota has become a trendy strategy. Particularly the application of probiotics has become remarkably popular because of their expected association with gut microbiota modulation. Although there are many literatures on the effects of probiotics in obese animal models, most of them reported the effects of probiotic bacteria on metabolic indications with limited information on anti-obesity itself. Besides, some probiotics have been shown to reduce certain metabolic symptoms but they failed to achieve weight loss. This report reviewed the current literatures on the anti-obesity effects of next-generation probiotics in various animal obesity models and discussed the beneficial potential of fecal microbiota transplantation in treating obesity in humans. The purpose of this article is to help guide further research improve the probiotic bacteria experiments in more precise animal obesity models by standardizing the anti-obesogenesis, obesity control, and treatment assays and hopefully the evidence-based investigations on harnessing gut microbiota through next-generation probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation will develop new interventions to promote and achieve anti-obesity.
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