This paper simulates soil vibration under the train speed below and over the soil Rayleigh speed using the three-dimensional finite element method. Two vibration isolation schemes were studied including the soil improvement around the railway and the concrete slab constructed between the rail and soil. Numerical results indicate that the vibration increases considerably and decays slowly when the train speed exceeds the soil Rayleigh speed. The wave direction and dominant frequencies are the simple functions of the train speed, the soil Rayleigh speed and the train compartment length. When the train speed exceeds the shear wave speed, the vibration magnitude is critical and not sensitive to the train speed. To reduce this vibration, the two isolation schemes investigated in this study are useful for the train speed over the soil Rayleigh speed, but they are not efficient for the train speed below the soil Rayleigh speed.
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