Background/purpose Serum gastric parietal cell antibody (GPCA), thyroglobulin antibody (TGA), and thyroid microsomal antibody (TMA) are found in some erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP) patients. This study assessed whether serum GPCA, TGA and TMA and EOLP itself played significant roles in causing anemia and hematinic deficiencies in TGA/TMA-positive EOLP patients with GPCA positivity (GPCA+/TGA/TMA/EOLP patients) or negativity (GPCA−/TGA/TMA/EOLP patients). Methods The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean blood hemoglobin (Hb), iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid levels were measured and compared between any two of the four groups of 29 GPCA+/TGA/TMA/EOLP patients, 80 GPCA−/TGA/TMA/EOLP patients, 198 all antibodies-negative EOLP patients (Abs−/EOLP patients), and 218 healthy control individuals. Results GPCA+/TGA/TMA/EOLP patients had significantly lower mean Hb and vitamin B12 levels as well as significantly greater frequencies of Hb, iron, and vitamin B12 deficiencies than healthy controls. GPCA+/TGA/TMA/EOLP patients had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 level and higher MCV as well as a significantly greater frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency than GPCA−/TGA/TMA/EOLP patients. Furthermore, both GPCA−/TGA/TMA/EOLP and Abs−/EOLP patients did have significantly lower mean Hb, MCV, and iron (for women only) levels, as well as significantly greater frequencies of Hb and iron deficiencies than healthy controls. However, there were no significant differences in measured blood data between GPCA−/TGA/TMA/EOLP and Abs−/EOLP patients. Conclusion We conclude that serum GPCA is the major factor causing vitamin B12 deficiency, macrocytosis and pernicious anemia in GPCA+/TGA/TMA/EOLP patients. ELOP itself but not TGA/TMA positivity plays a significant role in causing anemia and hematinic deficiencies in GPCA−/TGA/TMA/EOLP patients.
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