MicroRNAs (miRNAs) could serve as ideal entry points to the deregulated pathways in osteoporosis due to their relatively simple upstream and downstream relationships with other molecules in the signaling cascades. Our study aimed to give a comprehensive review of the already identified miRNAs in osteoporosis from human blood samples and provide useful information for their clinical application. A systematic literature search for relevant studies was conducted in the Pubmed database from inception to December 2020. We set two essential inclusion criteria: human blood sampling and design of controlled studies. We sorted the results of analysis on human blood samples according to the study settings and compiled the most promising miRNAs with analyzed diagnostic values. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo evidence for the mechanisms of the identified miRNAs was also illustrated. Based on both diagnostic value and evidence of mechanism from in vitro and in vivo experiments, miR-23b-3p, miR-140-3p, miR-300, miR-155-5p, miR-208a-3p, and miR-637 were preferred candidates in diagnostic panels and as therapeutic agents. Further studies are needed to build sound foundations for the clinical usage of miRNAs in osteoporosis.
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