The disclosed study undertook a ‘human centred-approach’ that ascertained and categorised environmental human thermophysiological risk factors by relating them to the human biometeorological system through the use of three widely utilised energy balance model (EBM) indices, the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), the modified PET, and the universal thermal climate index (UTCI). The disclosed assessment was carried out over the past decade (i.e., 2010–2019) with a 3-h temporal resolution for the case of Ankara through two WMO meteorological stations to compare both local urban and peri-urban environmental conditions. The study recognised extreme annual variability of human physiological stress (PS) during the different seasons as a result of the biometeorological processing of the singular variables, which in the case of average PET for both stations, varied by up to 75 °C between the winter and summer for the same annual dataset (2012). In addition, all EBMs indicated higher heat stress within the city centre that were conducive of both urban extreme heatwaves and very hot days during the summer months, with extreme heat stress levels lasting for longer than a week with PET values reaching a maximum of 48 °C. Similar cold extremes were found for the winter months, with PET values reaching − 30 °C, and average PS levels varying lower in the case of the peri-urban station. Graphical abstract[Figure not available: see fulltext.].
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science