Background: Highly pathogenic emerging and re-emerging viruses continuously threaten lives worldwide. In order to provide prophylactic prevention from the emerging and re-emerging viruses, vaccine is suggested as the most efficient way to prevent individuals from the threat of viral infection. Nonetheless, the highly pathogenic viruses need to be handled in a high level of biosafety containment, which hinders vaccine development. To shorten the timeframe of vaccine development, the pseudovirus system has been widely applied to examine vaccine efficacy or immunogenicity in the emerging and re-emerging viruses. Methods: We developed pseudovirus systems for emerging SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and re-emerging avian influenza virus H5 subtypes which can be handled in the biosafety level 2 facility. Through the generated pseudovirus of SARS-CoV-2 and avian influenza virus H5 subtypes, we successfully established a neutralization assay to quantify the neutralizing activity of antisera against the viruses. Results: The result of re-emerging avian influenza virus H5Nx pseudoviruses provided valuable information for antigenic evolution and immunogenicity analysis in vaccine candidate selection. Together, our study assessed the potency of pseudovirus systems in vaccine efficacy, antigenic analysis, and immunogenicity in the vaccine development of emerging and re-emerging viruses. Conclusion: Instead of handling live highly pathogenic viruses in a high biosafety level facility, using pseudovirus systems would speed up the process of vaccine development to provide community protection against emerging and re-emerging viral diseases with high pathogenicity.
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