p53 gene mutation is documented in head and neck cancer. No reports exist relating this mutation to normal mucosa or benign and malignant lesions of the nasal cavity. We investigate p53 overexpression using immunohistochemical techniques improved by an antigen retrieval method. p53 protein was analyzed in the following cases: normal, benign [papilloma and inverted papilloma (IP)] and malignant [squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in IP, SCC alone, adenocarcinoma and small-cell carcinoma]. Both the intensity and rate of positive p53 immunostaining were evaluated using a quantitative Auto-CAD program. Overexpression of p53 protein was not identified in normal mucosa, benign or premalignant lesions; however, approximately 60% is correlated to nasal cancer. p53 overexpression correlates with heavy smoking. Both the IP and SCC portions of SCC synchronous with IP showed similar p53 immunoreactivity. SCC arising in IP shows a lower p53 immunoreactivity than SCC alone. Thus, smoking along with a p53 mutation may be a mutagenic agent in nasal cancers. Alteration of the p53 protein may play an important role in the early stages of the malignant transformation of IP. A low p53 immunoreactivity indicates the presence of wild-type p53 protein. This may show a better response to radiation therapy yielding a better prognosis for SCC arising in IP compared to SCC alone. However, further clinical trials are required to investigate this possibly worthwhile prognostic marker.
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