Objective: Mounting evidence has demonstrated that various chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with incident heart failure (HF). However, there is scarce evidence about the association between primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) and HF. We aimed to explore this association using a nationwide database in Taiwan. Methods: We selected patients with incident pSS and no history of HF. Using propensity score matching based on age, sex, cohort entry time, comorbidities, and concomitant medications, cohorts of patients with and without pSS (as controls) were created in a 1:1 ratio and the groups were compared. The cumulative incidence of HF was calculated using Kaplan–Meier estimation. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to measure the hazard ratio (HR) of HF-related hospitalization for the pSS cohort compared with the comparison group. Results: A total of 16,466 pairs of patients with pSS and those without pSS were identified. The cumulative incidence of HF-related hospitalization at 3, 5, and 10 years in patients with pSS was 1.05%, 1.89%, and 4.33%, respectively. The risk of HF-related hospitalization was not higher in patients with pSS than in the general population (HR: 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84–1.14). There was no difference in survival probability after the first episode of HF-related hospitalization between pSS and non-pSS groups. Conclusion: Our results suggest that distinct inflammatory spectrums in each chronic inflammatory disease might have differential impacts on cardiac function and subsequent risk of HF. Future studies are needed to elucidate the complex and diverse mechanisms of HF in various chronic autoimmune diseases.
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