Associations between femoral 3D curvature and sagittal imbalance of spine

Chien Hsiung Lo, Yu Hua Dean Fang, Jing Yao Wang, Tzu Ping Yu, Hao Chun Chuang, Yuan Fu Liu, Chao Jui Chang, Cheng Li Lin

研究成果: Article同行評審


Background: The sagittal imbalance (SI) of spine triggers compensatory mechanisms (CMs) of lower extremity (LE) to restore trunk balance. These CMs can cause long-period stress on the femur and may possibly alter the femoral morphology. This cross-sectional observational study aimed to answer the following questions: (a) Do SI subjects exhibit greater femoral bowing compared to subjects with sagittal balance? (b) Are there associations between femoral bowing and CMs of LE in SI subjects?. Methods: Subjects who underwent biplanar full body radiographs with the EOS imaging system between January 2016 and September 2021 were recruited. Sagittal parameters included T1-pelvic angle (TPA), pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope, lumbar lordosis (LL), PI-LL, and PT/PI ratio. LE parameters were femoral obliquity angle (FOA), knee flexion angle (KA), and ankle dorsiflexion angle. Femoral bowing was quantified as 3D radius of femoral curvature (RFC). Associations between 3D RFC and the radiographic parameters were analyzed. Results: A total of 105 subjects were included, classified into balance group (TPA < 14°, n = 40), SI group (TPA ≥ 14° and KA <5°, n = 30), and SI with knee flexion group (TPA ≥ 14° and KA ≥ 5°, n = 35). 3D RFC was significantly lower in SI with knee flexion group compared to the other two groups (both p < 0.001). Stepwise linear regression showed that age, SI and knee flexion, femoral length (FL), FOA, and KA were independent predictors for 3D RFC. Conclusion: Greater femoral bowing is observed in subjects with SI and knee flexion compared to the balanced population. CM parameters, including KA and FOA, are associated with 3D RFC. Further longitudinal study is needed to investigate the cause-and-effect relationship between SI, CMs of LE, and femoral bowing.

期刊JOR Spine
出版狀態Published - 2024 3月

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • 骨科和運動醫學


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