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Terms in this set (32)
the variable being manipulated in the experiment
independent variable
· the variable that depends on the changes from the independent variable.
dependent variable
· any factor not directly related to the purpose of the study, but may affect the dependent variable
extraneous/confound variable
4 ways to avoid extraneous/confound variables
§ Random assignment of subjects
§ Use of a control group
§ A well-defined research protocol
§ Blinding
how consistently a method measures something
reliability
o giving someone a test and then giving it to them again later, hoping they get the same score
test retest
if people perform well on forms A and B of a test, it has good reliability
alternate forms
· does the test measure what it says it is measuring
validity
o appears to measure what it says it does
face validity
how well it tests the content it was supposed to assess
content validity
how well a test can predict an outcome
criterion validity
incudes other types; to what degree does the test truly measure the variable of interest
construct validity
correctly identifying someone as having a disorder
test sensitivity
correctly ruling someone out as NOT having a disorder
test specificity
conveys information about a distribution by providing information about the average or most typical score
central tendency
the average
mean
the number in the middle
median
the number appearing the most
mode
the amount of dispersion of scores about the mean scores
variability
subtract the smallest score from the largest
range
the standardized measure/distance away from the mean
standard deviation
when the distribution has more extreme scores at one end than at the other/ the mean, median, and mode are different
skewness
o more low scores than high scores
positive skew
more high scores than low scores
negative skews
how does the data relate from the sample to the general population
generalization
what 4 things require research
o Proposal
o Thesis
o Dissertation
o Publication
the hypothesis that there is no significant different between specified populations, any observed differences being due to sampling or experimental error
null hypothesis
o A p-value of less than __ would result in rejecting the null hypothesis
.05
rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true (aka ___)
type 1 error; false positive conclusion
failing to reject a false null hypothesis (aka __)
type 2 error; false negative conclusion
an extension of a correlation, but still not an indication of causation
regression
o Trying to predict or explain the variance of an dependent variable
o Used to explain the impact of chances in an independent variable on the dependent variable
o How much variance in the dependent variable is explained by the model
regression
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