Atherosclerosis is the major cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a common imaging modality for diagnosing CVDs. However, an efficient analyzer for IVUS image segmentation is required for assisting cardiologists. In this study, an end-to-end deep-learning convolutional neural network was developed for automatically detecting media-adventitia borders, luminal regions, and calcified plaque in IVUS images. A total of 713 grayscale IVUS images from 18 patients were used as training data for the proposed deep-learning model. The model is constructed using the three modified U-Nets and combined with the concept of cascaded networks to prevent errors in the detection of calcification owing to the interference of pixels outside the plaque regions. Three loss functions (Dice, Tversky, and focal loss) with various characteristics were tested to determine the best setting for the proposed model. The efficacy of the deep-learning model was evaluated by analyzing precision-recall curve. The average precision (AP), Dice score coefficient, precision, sensitivity, and specificity of the predicted and ground truth results were then compared. All training processes were validated using leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. The experimental results showed that the proposed deep-learning model exhibits high performance in segmenting the media-adventitia layers and luminal regions for all loss functions, with all tested metrics being higher than 0.90. For locating calcified tissues, the best result was obtained when the focal loss function was applied to the proposed model, with an AP of 0.73; however, the prediction efficacy was affected by the proportion of calcified tissues within the plaque region when the focal loss function was employed. Compared with commercial software, the proposed method exhibited high accuracy in segmenting IVUS images in some special cases, such as when shadow artifacts or side vessels surrounded the target vessel.
|頁（從 - 到）||1762-1772|
|期刊||IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control|
|出版狀態||Published - 2021 五月|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes