One of the core values of Industry 4.0 targets to integrate people's demand into manufacturing for enhanced products, systems, and services for a wider variety of increasingly personalized customization of products. Thus, Industry 4.0 advances the traditional manufacturing techniques from mass production toward mass customization (MC). Take wheel machining automation (WMA) as an example. To meet MC expectations, manufacturers should offer customized wheels at a large scale with low cost, short lead-time, and high quality. Thus, WMA cells with MC capability are requested to be designed to have a high degree of quick responsiveness to accurately react on machining-condition changes for manufacturing different wheel types. To meet the requirements of MC production, this work proposes to apply the automatic virtual metrology (AVM) system together with the so-called target-value-adjustment (TVA) scheme. The AVM system was developed by the authors to convert sampling inspections with metrology delay into real-time and on-line total inspection, while the TVA scheme is designed to enhance AVM's adaptive customization capability for automatically and rapidly accomplishing the goals of MC production. To demonstrate the versatility of the AVM-plus-TVA approach, the other example in semiconductor etching process is also illustrated.
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