Escherichia coli producing the highly virulent, multidrug-resistant, CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), sequence type 131 (ST131), has emerged on three continents since the late 2000s. We described the molecular epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome of ESBL-producing E. coli bacteremia in Taiwan from 2005 to 2010. This study aims to determine whether the risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes of the ST131 isolate differ from those of non-ST131 isolates. From 2005 to 2010, we collected 122 non-duplicated, consecutive, ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from bloodstream infections in a 1,200-bed hospital in Taiwan. Isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing. Demographic data, clinical features, and outcomes were collected from medical chart records. Thirty-six (29.5%) patients with bacteremia with ESBL-producing E. coli ST131 were identified. Patients with clone ST131 were more likely to have secondary bacteremia and noncatheterized urinary tract infections (P<0.05). Secondary bacteremia (odds ratio [OR], 5.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 23.56) and urinary catheter nonuse (OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.17 to 12.18) were independent risk factors for the ST131 clone after adjustment. Mortality rates at day 28 were similar in ST131 and non-ST131 populations. Independent risk factors predicting mortality at day 28 included malignancy, shock, and hospital-acquired bacteremia. In ESBL-producing E. coli bloodstream infections, the ST131 clone was not associated with health-care-associated risk factors, such as urinary catheter use or antibiotic exposure. Although highly virulent and multidrug resistant, the ST131 clone was not associated with higher mortality than non-ST131 clones.
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