Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections in humans are increasing worldwide. The global spread of antimicrobial resistance poses a considerable threat to human health. Phage therapy is a promising approach to combat MDR bacteria. An increasing number of reports have been published on phage therapy and the successful application of antibacterials derived using this method. Additionally, the CRISPR-Cas system has been used to develop antimicrobials with bactericidal effects in vivo. The CRISPR-Cas system can be delivered into target bacteria in various ways, with phage-based vectors being reported as an effective method. In this review, we briefly summarise the results of randomised control trials on bacteriophage therapy. Moreover, we integrated mechanisms of the CRISPR-Cas system antimicrobials in a schematic diagram and consolidated the research on phage-delivered CRISPR-Cas system antimicrobials.
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