The aim of the present study is to investigate the buoyancy- and thermocapillary-induced convection of water near its density maximum in an enclosure with temperature-dependent properties. The viscosity and thermal conductivity of the water are varied with reference temperature. The governing equations are solved by the finite-volume method. The results are discussed for various values of reference temperature parameter, density inversion parameter, and Rayleigh and Marangoni numbers. It is observed that the temperature of maximum density leaves strong effects on flow and heat transfer due to the formation of bi-cellular structure and reduction of the average heat transfer. It is also observed that convection heat transfer is enhanced by thermocapillary force when buoyancy force is weaken.
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