Nine fresh-frozen foot specimens were studied to determine the mechanical behavior of the foot using calcaneocuboid distraction arthrodesis, an operation designed for treatment of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction with flatfoot deformity. Flatfoot deformity was created in cadaveric specimens, and to simulate toe-off phase of gait, loads were applied to the plantar surface of the foot and six tendons. Three-dimensional tarsal bone positions were determined with a magnetic tracking system. With ligament sectioning, flatfoot deformity was observed and average arch height decreased 5.3 ± 3.5 mm. Height arch increased after calcaneocuboid distraction arthrodesis an average of 3.2 ± 3.6 mm and was less than normal arch at an average of 2.1 ± 2.4 mm. Metatarsotalar alignment compared with flatfoot improved after calcaneocuboid distraction arthrodesis in adduction and inversion to the extent that these were not significantly different from intact foot positions. Calcaneotalar position improved after calcaneocuboid distraction arthrodesis in adduction and inversion. Calcaneocuboid alignment compared with flatfoot improved after calcaneocuboid distraction arthrodesis in adduction, plantar flexion, and eversion, but compared with an intact foot was overcorrected in all three planes of motion. Arch alignment in simulated toe-off phase of gait in cadaveric feet was improved significantly with calcaneocuboid distraction arthrodesis but was not reduced anatomically.
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