Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been utilized in cellular delivery systems to carry therapeutic agents into tumors by migration. Drug-loaded nanodroplets release drugs and form bubbles after acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) triggered by ultrasound stimulation, providing a system for ultrasound-induced cellular delivery of theranostic agents. In order to improve the efficiency of drug release, fusogenic nanodroplets were designed to go from nano to micron size upon uptake by ADSCs for reducing ADV threshold. The purpose of our study was to demonstrate the utility of camptothecin-loaded fusogenic nanodroplets (CPT-FNDs) as ultrasound theranostic agents in an ADSCs delivery system. CPT-FNDs showed an increase in size from 81.6 ± 3.5 to 1043.5 ± 28.3 nm and improved CPT release from 22.0 ± 1.8% to 37.6 ± 2.1%, demonstrating the fusion ability of CPT-FNDs. CPT-FNDs-loaded ADSCs demonstrated a cell viability of 77 ± 4%, and the in vitro migration ability was 3.2 ± 1.2-fold for the tumor condition compared to the cell growth condition. Ultrasound enhancement imaging showed intratumoral ADV-generated bubble formation (increasing 3.24 ± 0.47 dB) triggered by ultrasound after CPT-FNDs-loaded ADSCs migration into B16F0 tumors. Histological images revealed intratumoral distribution of CPT-FNDs-loaded ADSCs and tissue damage due to the ADV. The CPT-FNDs can be used as theranostic agents in an ADSCs delivery system to provide the ultrasound contrast imaging and deliver combination therapy of drug release and physical damage after ADV.
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