Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) can originate from early life. Accumulating evidence suggests that gut microbiota in early life is linked to CVDs in later life. Gut microbiota-targeted therapy has gained significant importance in recent decades for its health-promoting role in the prevention (rather than just treatment) of CVDs. Thus far, available gut microbiota-based treatment modalities used as reprogramming interventions include probiotics, prebiotics, and postbiotics. The purpose of this review is, first, to highlight current studies that link dysbiotic gut microbiota to the developmental origins of CVD. This is followed by a summary of the connections between the gut microbiota and CVD behind cardiovascular programming, such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and their receptors, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), uremic toxins, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). This review also presents an overview of how gut microbiota-targeted reprogramming interventions can prevent the developmental origins of CVD from animal studies. Overall, this review reveals that recent advances in gut microbiota-targeted therapy might provide the answers to reduce the global burden of CVDs. Still, additional studies will be needed to put research findings into practice.
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