Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have attracted tremendous attention because of their excellent chemical and physical properties and due to their renewability and sustainability. This material can be extracted from agricultural by-products such as rice straw, banana tree, or bagasse. Rice straw was selected as the raw material in this study. Initially, a large amount of lignin must be removed by an alkaline process to obtain a slurry. Thereafter, a green bleaching process can be used to remove the remaining lignin in the slurry. An UV-emitting diode with 365 nm wavelength assisted the oxidation reaction of the H2O2 solution without the use of chlorine-containing chemical bleach. The reaction required only 2.5 h to obtain high-purity cellulose and successfully enhanced the yield. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the CNCs from rice straw were ~ 100 nm long and 10–15 nm wide. The crystalline index and degradation temperature of CNCs were 83.8% and 257 °C, respectively.
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