Long-range transport (LRT) can carry air pollutants to downwind areas. However, studies about the impacts of LRT on bacterial communities are few. This study investigated the influence of Asian dust storms (ADS) and frontal pollution (FP) on bacterial communities in ambient air using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). Air samples were collected at Cape Fugui (CF) and National Taiwan University (NTU) in northern Taiwan before (or background days), during, and after LRTs from November 2013 to March 2015. The richness, H index, and evenness increased during FPs and then decreased after FPs. During and after ADS and FP, the prevalence of the phylum Proteobacteria decreased, but that of Firmicutes increased. The dominant class of Proteobacteria changed from Alphaproteobacteria on background days to Betaproteobacteria during LRTs. At the genus level, the high abundance of Ralstonia and Bacillus during FP and Clostridium during ADS were detected at both locations. Addi-tionally, Ralstonia was dominant at CF during ADS. In conclusion, FP and ADS both changed the bacterial community. The indicator genus was Clostridium and Ralstonia for ADS as well as Bacillus and Ralstonia for FP. Given the potential health threats posed by the bioaerosols transported, people should avoid outdoor activities during LRTs.
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