Absorbable magnesium stents have become alternatives for treating restenosis owing to their better mechanical properties than those of bioabsorbable polymer stents. However, without modification, magnesium alloys cannot provide the proper degradation rate required to match the vascular reform speed. Gallic acid is a phenolic acid with attractive biological functions, including anti-inflammation, promotion of endothelial cell proliferation, and inhibition of smooth muscle cell growth. Thus, in the present work, a small-molecule eluting coating is designed using a sandwich-like configuration with a gallic acid layer enclosed between poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) layers. This coating was deposited on ZK60 substrate, a magnesium alloy that is used to fabricate bioresorbable coronary artery stents. Electrochemical analysis showed that the corrosion rate of the specimen was ~2000 times lower than that of the bare counterpart. The released gallic acid molecules from sandwich coating inhibit oxidation by capturing free radicals, selectively promote the proliferation of endothelial cells, and inhibit smooth muscle cell growth. In a cell migration assay, sandwich coating delayed wound closure in smooth muscle cells. The sandwich coating not only improved the corrosion resistance but also promoted endothelialization, and it thus has great potential for the development of functional vascular stents that prevent late-stent restenosis.
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