Magnesium-carbon powders and Magnesium-lithium powders were used as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries to investigate the structure and electrochemical behavior in room temperature. The composition of Mg-C powders contained 1:1 and 9:1. The powders and the thermal evaporated films of Mg-10Li were compared with Mg-C systems. In addition, Mg-10Li thermal evaporated film was used as the experimental materials to process the annealing treatment. The results show that Mg-C powders system had the interface effect of a Cu foil to reduce the electrochemical reaction. With increasing the carbon powder content, the charge-discharge characteristics of Mg-C powders was raised. Notably, the Mg-10Li specimen had better cycling properties than that of Mg-50C (1:1). After annealing at 200°C for 1hr, Mg-10Li alloy film not only increased the capacity, but also improved the charge-discharge cyclability.