Objective: This study aimed to investigate the clinical and microbiological features of recurrent group B streptococcal (GBS) diseases among non-pregnant adults. Methods: All hospitalized non-pregnant adults who had culture-proven GBS infections between January 2008 and December 2010 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Bacterial isolates were examined for their serotypes, genotypes, and antimicrobial resistance. Results: The recurrence rate of GBS infection in Taiwan was found to be 9.3%. Of the 70 recurrent episodes in 32 patients, infections of the urinary tract (U) were diagnosed clinically in 55.7%, infections of the soft tissue (S) in 31.4%, and infections of the bloodstream (B) in 12.9%. The initial/recurrent episodes in 25 patients were mainly U/U (40.6%), followed by S/S (18.8%) and B/B (6.2%). The serotypes/serogroups identified were serotypes V (34.3%), Ib (22.9%), VI (17.1%), III (12.9%), IV (7.1%), and Ia (5.7%). Recurrent strains showed less resistance to erythromycin or clindamycin than non-recurrent strains. Six distinct genotypes were identified in 12 serotype VI isolates derived from seven patients; five of these isolate pairs had identical genotypes. Conclusions: Recurrent GBS diseases were found to occur considerably more often than previously thought, mainly in adults with a high comorbid index. Relapse, not new acquisition, was found to be more common.
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