Carbon dioxide is the major greenhouse gas and regards as the critical issue of global warming and climate changes. The inconspicuous microalgae are responsible for 40% of carbon fixation among all photosynthetic plants along with a higher photosynthetic efficiency and convert the carbon into lipids, protein, pigments, and bioactive compounds. Genetic approach and metabolic engineering are applied to accelerate the growth rate and biomass of microalgae, hence achieve the mission of carbon neutrality. Meanwhile, CRISPR/Cas9 is efficiently to enhance the productivity of high-value compounds in microalgae for it is easier operation, more affordable and is able to regulate multiple genes simultaneously. The genetic engineering strategies provide the multidisciplinary concept to evolute and increase the CO2 fixation rate through Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle. Therefore, the technologies, bioinformatics tools, systematic engineering approaches for carbon neutrality and circular economy are summarized and leading one step closer to the decarbonization society in this review.
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