Kawasaki disease (KD), a multisystem inflammatory syndrome that occurs in children, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) may share some overlapping mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in single-cell RNA sequencing between KD and COVID-19. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing in KD patients (within 24 hours before IVIG treatment) and age-matched fever controls. The single-cell RNA sequencing data of COVID-19, influenza, and health controls were downloaded from the Sequence Read Archive (GSE149689/PRJNA629752). In total, 22 single-cell RNA sequencing data with 102,355 nuclei were enrolled in this study. After performing hierarchical and functional clustering analyses, two enriched gene clusters demonstrated similar patterns in severe COVID-19 and KD, heightened neutrophil activation, and decreased MHC class II expression. Furthermore, comparable dysregulation of neutrophilic granulopoiesis representing two pronounced hyperinflammatory states was demonstrated, which play a critical role in the overactivated and defective aging program of granulocytes, in patients with KD as well as those with severe COVID-19. In conclusion, both neutrophil activation and MHC class II reduction play a crucial role and thus may provide potential treatment targets for KD and severe COVID-19.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes