Background: Head-to-head comparison of clinical effectiveness between dulaglutide and liraglutide in Asia is limited. This study was aimed to assess the real-world comparative effectiveness of dulaglutide versus liraglutide. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study by utilizing multi-institutional electronic medical records to identify real-world type 2 diabetes patients treated with dulaglutide or liraglutide during 2016-2018 in Taiwan and followed up until 2019. Effectiveness outcomes were assessed at every 3 months in the 1-year follow-up. Propensity score techniques were applied to enhance between-group comparability. Significant differences in changes of effectiveness outcomes between treatment groups during the follow-up were examined and further analyzed using mixed-model repeated-measures approaches. Results: A total of 1512 subjects receiving dulaglutide and 1513 subjects receiving liraglutide were identified. At 12 months, significant HbA1c changes from baseline were found in both treatments (dulaglutide: - 1.06%, p < 0.001; liraglutide: - 0.83%, p < 0.001), with a significant between-group difference (- 0.23%, 95% confidence interval - 0.38 to - 0.08%, p < 0.01). Both treatments yielded significant declines in weight, alanine aminotransferase level, and estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline (dulaglutide: - 1.14 kg, - 3.08 U/L and - 2.08 mL/min/1.73 m2, p < 0.01; liraglutide: - 1.64 kg, - 3.65 U/L and - 2.33 mL/min/1.73 m2, p < 0.001), whereas only dulaglutide yielded a significant systolic blood pressure reduction (- 2.47 mmHg, p < 0.001). Between-group differences in changes of weight, blood pressure, and liver and renal functions at 12 months were not statistically significant. Conclusions: In real-world T2D patients, dulaglutide versus liraglutide was associated with better glycemic control and comparable effects on changes of weight, blood pressure, and liver and renal functions.
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