Carbon dioxide utilization is increasingly attracting interest. CO2 utilization involves a multitude of processes and chemical reactions. In this context, the goal of this review is to analyze the techno-economic feasibility, sustainability, and social opportunities of CO2 utilization, as a possible contribution to CO2 mitigation in Europe. Industries and the most recent European projects related to carbon capture and utilization are also discussed, illustrating Europe's performance dynamics in science, research, and innovation in this field. The latest developments in CO2 utilization are thus reviewed, including chemicals, mineral carbonation, and biological uses. This study examines a few CO2-based pathways at high level of maturity covering a wide range of applications, and discusses their current technical feasibility, economic viability, sustainability, and social aspects. They are then evaluated using several indicators to provide a figure of merit, where qualitative results are intended. The mapping and ranking of CO2 utilization pathways may provide a valuable means in prioritizing support and funding to facilitate the development of large-scale CO2 utilization projects in Europe. Finally, key challenges and opportunities are discussed. The review shows that CO2 utilization may not be a complete solution for Europe, but will support climate change objectives, circular economy, and resource and energy security.
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