Abstract: Determination of the physical mechanisms of energy transfer from tropospheric disturbances to the ionosphere is one of the fundamental problems of atmospheric physics. Both regular events (passage of the solar terminator) and irregular ones (meteorological storms, earthquakes, solar eclipses, etc.) lead to such disturbances. This paper presents the results of observations of tropospheric and ionospheric disturbances during the passage of the solar terminator, solar eclipse, and meteorological storm. Lidar sounding shows that during the development of these events, regions are formed in the troposphere with a noticeable increase in the amplitudes of variations in density, pressure, and temperature with periods corresponding to acoustic and internal gravity waves (AWs and IGWs, respectively). Simultaneous satellite measurements demonstrate the response of the ionosphere to tropospheric disturbances. Based on the observational data for each of the events, the characteristic periods and the time and spatial scales of variations are determined. It is found that the response time of the ionosphere to tropospheric disturbances is 30–40 min. As a result of numerical modeling using the AtmoSym software package, it is shown that nonlinear and dissipative processes in the thermosphere lead to the formation of sources of secondary waves with periods longer than those of the primary AWs and IGWs propagating vertically upward from the troposphere into the thermosphere. The influence of tropospheric disturbances on the operation of global navigation satellite systems is also discussed.
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