Two electrical mechanisms for manipulating particles and fluids, dielectrophoresis (DEP) and liquid dielectrophoresis (LDEP), are integrated in a microfluidic chip for creating the single-particle environment. The fluid is activated by LDEP with a 100-kHz/240-Vpp signal. When the single polystyrene bead approaches the trapping area, positive DEP force is utilized to capture and immobilize the bead. After trapping the bead, the process of liquid cutting and droplet creation is employed to create a droplet containing a single bead by LDEP with a 100-kHz/320-Vpp signal.
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