The use of microalgae for wastewater treatment has recently attracted increased interest due to the effective nutrient removal abilities of such microorganism, and additional benefits of biofuel production. Microalgae also have the advantages of high growth rates, high cellular lipid productivities, capability to bio-sequester carbon dioxide, capability to remove pollutants from wastewater and their abilities to produce biofuels and bio-based chemicals. However, large scale, cost-effective and sustainable microalgae biofuel production remains still uncertain. In this review, the pathway of integrating wastewaters (including palm oil mill effluent (POME), sewage and landfill leachate) as the medium for microalgal cultivation is comprehensively discussed. The technology/potential of using microalgae to remove pollutants from wastewaters as well as converting the resulting microalgal biomass for biofuel production, are critically reviewed.
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