There is an exponential increase in swine farms around the world to meet the increasing demand for proteins, resulting in a significant amount of swine/piggery wastewater. The wastewater produced in swine farms are rich in ammonia with high eutrophication potential and negative environmental impacts. Safe methods for treatment and disposal of swine wastewater have attracted increased research attention in the recent decades. Conventional wastewater treatment methods are limited by the high ammonia content and chemical/biological oxygen demand of swine wastewater. Recently, microalgal cultivation is being proposed for the phytoremediation of swine wastewater. Microalgae are tolerant to high ammonia levels seen in swine wastewater and they also ensure phosphorus removal simultaneously. This review first gives a brief overview on the conventional methods used for swine wastewater treatment. Microalgae-based processes for the clean-up of swine wastewater are discussed in detail, with their potential advantages and limitations. Future research perspectives are also presented.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Waste Management and Disposal