The impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) on overall commu-nity-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and disease severity still needs thorough evaluation. In this study, we retrieve both pneumococcal CAP (P-CAP) and unspecific CAP (U-CAP) inpatient data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database (NHID) between 2005 and 2016. The interrupted time-series (ITS) analysis was performed to compare the incidence trend before and after the implementation of PCV13. After PCV13 implementation, there is a significant decreasing trend of P-CAP hos-pitalization, especially in children <1 year, 2–5 years, adults aged 19–65 years, 66 years, or older (all p value < 0.05). This corresponds to a 59% reduction in children <1 year, 47% in children aged 2–5 years, 39% in adult aged 19–65 years, and 41% in elderly aged 66 years or older. The intensive care rate (6.8% to 3.9%), severe pneumonia cases (21.7 to 14.5 episodes per 100,000 children–years), and the need for invasive procedures (4.3% to 2.0%) decreased in children aged 2–5 years (p value < 0.0001) with P-CAP. This PCV13 implementation program in Taiwan not only reduced the incidence of P-CAP, but also attenuated disease severity, especially in children aged 2–5 years.
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