Simultaneous nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) process was developed in subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) to treat polluted surface water. The effects of vegetation, hydraulic retention time (HRT), C/N, and influent nitrogen forms on nitrogen removal and microbial communities were investigated. Results showed that denitrification- and anammox-dominant SNAD corresponded to nitrate- and ammonia-dominant influent, respectively, and both could achieve more efficient nitrogen removal in planted SFCWs than the unplated. These higher efficiencies were due to the microbial growth, organic carbon release, oxygen supply and plant uptake promoted by vegetation. The electron donors accelerated denitrification but inhibited ammonia oxidation with deficient oxygen. Anammox contributed to nitrogen removal of 27.34% under oxygen-limited conditions without vegetation. Anammox combined with denitrification and plant uptake were over 90% in planted SFCWs. For the investigated factors, the ammonia, nitrate and C/N were the most significant ones influencing the microbial communities, further nitrogen removal pathways and performances.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes