A heterojunction CdS/TiO 2 photoelectrode was prepared using pre-crystallized annealing, followed by solution-based methods, to deposit CdS within the tubes of a free-standing both-side-open TiO 2 nanotube-array (TiNT) film. Such open-ended structures make the nanochannels more amenable to CdS deposition compared with close-ended structures, thus preventing entry clogging. In the experiment on photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells, the use of CdS/both-side-open TiNT film allows easy access of the outer light and the electrolyte to the nanochannels because of the uniform CdS deposition within the tubes. As compared to the one-side-close TiNT-based PEC cell, the maximum incident-photon-to-current conversion efficiency at 455 nm is increased from 41% to 68% in the both-side-open TiNT-based device measured at a potential of - 0.4 V versus Ag/AgCl under front-side illumination.
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