The presence of human papillomavirus DNA in cholesteatoma may have some role in the development of middle ear cholesteatoma as well as in papilloma. In the present study, polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization with human papillomavirus (HPV)-6 and -11 DNA probes were used to detect the presence of HPV DNA in 32 human middle ear cholesteatomas. Only one specimen contained HPV-6 DNA. Although its occurrence may have been coincidental, it is also possible that the hyperproliferative epithelium of cholesteatomas might have some relationship with HPV infections.
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