Direct numerical simulations are performed to investigate the multiscale flow physics of binary droplet collision over a wide range of Weber numbers and impact factors. All possible collision outcomes, including bouncing (both head-on and off-center), coalescence, reflexive separation, and stretching separation, are considered. The theoretical formulation is based on a complete set of conservation equations for both the liquid and gas phases. An improved volume-of-fluid technique, which is augmented by an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm, is used to track the liquid/gas interface. Several local refinement criteria are validated and employed to improve the computational accuracy and efficiency substantially. In particular, a thickness-based refinement technique is implemented for treating cases involving extremely thin gas films between droplets. The smallest numerical grid is ∼10 nm, which is on the order of 10-5 times the initial droplet diameter. A photorealistic visualization technique is employed to gain direct insights into the detailed collision dynamics, including both the shape evolution and mass relocation. The numerical framework allows us to systematically investigate the underlying mechanisms and processes, such as gas-film drainage and energy and mass transfer, at scales sufficient to resolve the near-field dynamics during droplet collision. The nonmonotonic transition of bouncing and merging outcomes for head-on collision is identified by varying the Weber number over two orders of magnitude. A geometric relation defining the droplet interactions is developed. Analytical models are also established to predict the mass transfer between colliding droplets.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computational Mechanics
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes