Background: Epidemiological knowledge of mucormycosis obtained from national population-based databases is scarce. Objectives: This study aimed to depict the disease burden and demographics of mucormycosis in Taiwan by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) and those of aspergillosis as a comparator. Methods: Data from patients with either mucormycosis or aspergillosis from 2006 to 2017 identified with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes were extracted from the NHIRD. The incidence, demographics and clinical data of both diseases were analysed. Results: A total of 204 patients with mucormycosis and 2270 patients with aspergillosis who were hospitalised and treated with mould-active antifungals between 2006 and 2017 were identified. The average annual incidence of aspergillosis (0.81 cases per 100,000 population [0.81/100,000]) was 11-fold higher than that of mucormycosis (0.07/100,000). A significant increase in incidence was observed for aspergillosis (from 0.48/100,000 in 2006 to 1.19/100,000 in 2017, p <.0001) but not for mucormycosis (from 0.04/100,000 in 2006 to 0.11/100,000 in 2017, p =.07). The major underlying disease identified was diabetes mellitus (60.8%) for mucormycosis and malignant neoplasms (45.9%) for aspergillosis. The all-cause 90-day mortality rate was similar between mucormycosis and aspergillosis patients (39% vs. 37%, p =.60). For mucormycosis patients, multivariate analysis revealed that posaconazole use was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (aOR 0.38; 95% CI 0.15–0.97; p =.04). Conclusions: Mucormycosis is an uncommon fungal disease in Taiwan, occurring mostly in diabetic patients. However, the incidence might be underestimated due to limited diagnostics. Continuous surveillance might aid in delineating the evolving features of mucormycosis.
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