Background: To explore the dynamic changes and effects of radical cystectomy on quality of life in muscle-invasive bladder cancer survivors. Methods: Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer were randomly recruited in this study. We used the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief questionnaire to assess consecutive patients’ quality of life. We applied kernel smoothing to illustrate the dynamic changes of the domain and item scores after treatment. Mixed-effects models were constructed to determine the effects of radical cystectomy on the scores of each item and domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief questionnaire after controlling demographic and clinical factors. Results: We collected 397 repeated measurements of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief questionnaire from 109 muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients. Forty-two of them received radical cystectomy. Patients with radical cystectomy exhibited higher levels of education, less co-morbidities (i.e., diabetes and heart diseases), but were associated with more malignancies. Construction of mixed-effects models showed patients with radical cystectomy and those with bladder sparing had similar scores in the three main domains and their items, except that of certain items of physical domain. By applying kernel smoothing method, we found that stage III–IV patients consistently showed higher scores on sleep and rest after radical cystectomy for more than 5 years. In contrast, stage II patients receiving radical cystectomy did not show a higher score on the “sleep and rest” item compared with those with bladder sparing operation. Conclusions: Radical cystectomy may result in sound sleep and rest, especially in those with stage III–IV bladder cancer.
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