Virus-induced asthma is prevalent among children, but its underlying mechanisms are unclear. Accumulated evidence indicates that early-life respiratory virus infection increases susceptibility to allergic asthma. Nonetheless, the relationship between systemic virus infections, such as enterovirus infection, and the ensuing effects on allergic asthma development is unknown. Early-life enterovirus infection was correlated with higher risks of allergic diseases in children. Adult mice exhibited exacerbated mite allergen-induced airway inflammation following recovery from EV-A71 infection in the neonatal period. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from recovered EV-A71-infected mice showed sustained innate immune memory (trained immunity) that could drive naïve T helper cells toward Th2 and Th17 cell differentiation when in contact with mites. Adoptive transfer of EV-A71-trained BMDMs induced augmented allergic inflammation in naïve recipient mice, which was inhibited by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) pretreatment, suggesting that trained macrophages following enterovirus infection are crucial in the progression of allergic asthma later in life.
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