Objective: To analyze the components of resistance training (RT) exercises and evaluate the effects of RT on improving muscle strength and oxygen consumption (VO2) peak based on either center-based rehabilitation or home-based rehabilitation in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Methods: According to the PRISMA guidelines, articles were searched through five databases, including Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PEDro and Cochrane. RevMan 5.3 software was used to perform the meta-analysis. Results: Nine randomized controlled trial studies met the study criteria, including a total of 299 respondents. In the center-based respondents (n = 81 for intervention group vs. n = 81 for control group), RT resulted in significant effects on both muscle strength of lower extremity (SDM = 1.46, 95% CI = 0.41–2.50, n = 151) and upper extremity (SDM = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.05–0.87, n = 97) and VO2 peak (MD = 1.45 ml/kg/min, 95% CI = 0.01–2.89, n = 114). In the home-based respondents (n = 71 for intervention group vs. n = 66 for control group), RT resulted in significant effects on muscle strength of both lower extremity (SDM = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.20–0.97, n = 113) and upper extremity (SDM = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.24–1.44, n = 47) and VO2 peak (MD = 5.43 ml/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.23–10.62, n = 89). Conclusion: The RT exercise could increase muscle strength and VO2 peak at either center-based or home-based rehabilitation and should be considered as a part of the care of patients with HFrEF.
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