In this study, we conduct a series of large-eddy simulations (LESs) to study the impact of different incoming turbulent boundary layer flows over large wind farms, with a particular focus on the overall efficiency of electricity production and the evolution of the turbine wake structure. Five representative turbine placements in the large wind farm are considered, including an aligned layout and four staggered layouts with lateral or vertical offset arrangements. Four incoming flow conditions are used and arranged from the LESs of the ABL flow over homogeneous flat surfaces with four different aerodynamic roughness lengths (i.e., z0 = 0.5, 0.1, 0.01, and 0.0001 m), where the hub-height turbulence intensity levels are about 11.1%, 8.9%, 6.8%, and 4.9%, respectively. The simulation results indicate that an enhancement in the inflow turbulence level can effectively increase the power generation efficiency in the large wind farms, with about 23.3% increment on the overall farm power production and up to about 32.0% increment on the downstream turbine power production. Under the same inflow condition, the change of the turbine-array layouts can increase power outputs within the first 10 turbine rows, which has a maximum increment of about 26.5% under the inflow condition with low turbulence. By comparison, the increase of the inflow turbulence intensity facilitates faster wake recovery that raises the power generation efficiency of large wind farms than the adjustment of the turbine placing layouts.
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