Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have two characteristics of interest for this paper: the ability to self-renew, and the potential for multiple-lineage differentiation into various cells. MSCs have been used in cardiac tissue regeneration for over a decade. Adult cardiac tissue regeneration ability is quite low; it cannot repair itself after injury, as the heart cells are replaced by fibroblasts and lose function. It is therefore important to search for a feasible way to repair and restore heart function through stem cell therapy. Stem cells can differentiate and provide a source of progenitor cells for cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and supporting cells. Studies have shown that the concentrations of blood lipids and lipoproteins affect cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and obesity. Furthermore, the MSC lipid profiles, such as the triglyceride and cholesterol content, have been revealed by lipidomics, as well as their correlation with MSC differentiation. Abnormal blood lipids can cause serious damage to internal organs, especially heart tissue. In the past decade, the accumulated literature has indicated that lipids/lipoproteins affect stem cell behavior and biological functions, including their multiple lineage capability, and in turn affect the outcome of regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the effect of lipids/lipoproteins on MSC cardiac regenerative medicine, as well as the effect of lipid-lowering drugs in promoting cardiomyogenesis-associated MSC differentiation.
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