Background Patients with heart failure rarely engage in adequate self-care. Greater emphasis on self-care discharge readiness is needed. Purpose This study examined the effects of a predischarge educational program combined with 1 year of postdischarge follow-up on self-care behaviors, readmission, sleep quality, and depression in patients with heart failure. Methods A longitudinal, nonequivalent two-group pretest-posttest design was used. The intervention group received tailored education and follow-ups, whereas the control group received routine predischarge heart-failure education from direct care nurses only. Measurements included the self-care maintenance and self-care management subscales of the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and readmission rate. Data obtained at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postdischarge were analyzed using linear mixed models with both intention-to-treat and per-protocol approaches. The propensity score was used to adjust for the confounding effects of the New York Heart Association functional class and left ventricular ejection fraction. Results Of the 62 patients with heart failure (28 in the intervention group and 34 in the control group) who were sampled at baseline, 47 (n = 25 vs. n = 22) provided data over the entire course of this 1-year study (76% retention rate). The per-protocol analysis did not find significant differences for any variables. However, the intention-to-treat analysis showed that the intervention group significantly improved in self-care maintenance at 6 months and self-care management at 12 months after hospital discharge, with fewer, albeit not significantly fewer, first and subsequent hospital readmissions than the control group. Conclusions/Implications for Practice The effect of this intervention was not found to be substantial, indicating a need to design more efficacious and powerful interventions. Hospitalized patients must receive patient education before discharge to foster their self-care knowledge and skills regarding self-care at home. Strategies are needed to help nurses provide patient education in a time-efficient manner.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes