We report a facile pyrolysis process for the fabrication of a porous silicon-based anode for lithium-ion battery. Silicon flakes of 100 nm × 800 nm × 800 nm were mixed with equal weight of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) as the binder and the conductivity enhancement additive, Ketjen Black (KB), at the weight ratio of silicon–binder–KB being 70%:20%:10%, respectively. Pyrolysis was carried out at 700◦C in an inert argon environment for one hour. The process converts the binder to graphitic carbon coatings on silicon and a porous carbon structure. The process led to initial coulombic efficiency (ICE) being improved from 67% before pyrolysis to 75% after pyrolysis with the retention of 2.1 mAh/cm2 areal capacity after 100 discharge– charge cycles at 1 A/g rate. The improved ICE and cycling performance are attributed to graphitic coatings, which protect silicon from irreversible reactions with the electrolyte to form compounds such as lithium–silicon–fluoride (Li2SiF6 ) and the physical integrity and buffer space provided by the porous carbon structure. By eliminating the adverse effects of KB, the anode made with silicon-to-binder weight ratio of 70%:30% exhibited further improvement of the ICE to approximately 90%. This demonstrated that pyrolysis is a facile and promising one-step process for the fabrication of silicon-based anode with high ICE and long cycling life. This is especially true when the amount and choice of conductivity enhancement additive are optimized.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- 化學工程 (全部)