When conducting research with controlled experiments, sample size planning is one of the important decisions that researchers have to make. However, current methods do not adequately address this issue with regard to variance heterogeneity with some cost constraints for comparing several treatment means. This paper proposes a sample size allocation ratio in the fixed-effect heterogeneous analysis of variance when group variances are unequal and in cases where the sampling and/or variable cost has some constraints. The efficient sample size allocation is determined for the purpose of minimizing total cost with a designated power or maximizing the power with a given total cost. Finally, the proposed method is verified by using the index of relative efficiency and the corresponding total cost and the total sample size needed. We also apply our method in a pain management trial to decide an efficient sample size. Simulation studies also show that the proposed sample size formulas are efficient in terms of statistical power. SAS and R codes are provided in the appendix for easy application.
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